You and your partner need to add information that will help you and your classmates prepare for the final exam. Add important information, do a summary of the reading in your textbook, or put in important vocabulary.




  • Matter (ch. 1) and Measurements (ch. 2) - Grant and Rebecca
  • Atoms (ch. 3) - Matt and George
  • Arrangement of electrons (ch. 4) - Tim and MacKenzie
  • Periodic Law (ch. 5) - Lindsey and Lee
  • Chemical bonding (ch. 6) - Mason and Isabelle
  • Chemical formulas and compounds (ch. 7) - Maggie and Burke
  • Nuclear chemistry (ch. 21) - Connor and Daniel and Amber
  • Arrangement of electrons
    • wavelength: c=3.0 x 10 8
    • c= wavelength x frequency
    • Quantum #'s
    • E=hv
    • E= energy
    • h=6.626 x 10 -34
    • Bohr model of the hydrogen atom
    • Heisenberg uncertainty principal
    • Schrodinger: Quantum theory
    • Quantum #'s and Atomic orbitals
    • Electron configurations and spin
    • orbital notation and Nobel gas notation (mc)

  • Lab safety rules and Laboratory equipment - Daniel and Amber
    • No food or drink near the lab
    • wear proper safety equipment
    • No horseplay
    • you should be prepared before the lab
    • read everything carefully
    • Inform the instructor of any accidents
    • know the location of emergency locations
    • Be neat
    • waft chemicals
    • check glassware for cracks (DO)
  • want the neutron to proton ratio to be close 1:1
    • Beta particle -10B charge -1
    • Positron +10B charge +1
    • Gamma ray 00Y charge 0
    • Alpha Particle 24He charge +2 (DO)


Periodic Law
  • Group 1: the Alkali Family- very reactive.
  • Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals. They are very reactive and have two valence electrons.
  • Group 3-12: Transition Metals. They have higher melting/boiling points and ionization energies. attract magnetic fields
  • Group 17: Halogen Family and it’s not very reactive.
  • Group 18: Noble Gases - they have 8 valence electrons and are stable and unreactive
Trends
  • Group and Period trend for atomic radius
    • period: decreases
    • group: increases
  • Group and Period trend for ionization energy
    • period: increases
    • group: decreases
  • Group and Period trend for ionic radii
    • period: no real trend because you have cations on one side and anions on the other
    • group: increases
  • Group and Period trend for electronegativity
    • period: increases
    • group: decreases

Matter and Measurements - Rebecca and Grant**
  • Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space
    • Basic Building blocks of matter
      • atom - the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element
      • element - a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom
      • compound - a substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. Each compound is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
    • Properties and changes in matter
      • every substance has characteristic properties
      • properties help reveal the identity of an unknown substance
      • properties are either intensive or extensive
        • extensive properties - depend on the amount of matter that is present (volume, mass, amount of energy in a substance)
        • intensive properties - do not depend on the amount of matter present (melting point, density, ability to conduct electricity and heat)
      • physical properties and physical changes
        • physical property - a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. physical properties describe the substance itself, rather than describing how it can change into other substances
        • physical change - a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance (grinding, cutting, melting, boiling a material)
          • these types of changes do not change the identity of the substance present
          • when physical changes occur, energy is always involved
        • change of state - a physical change of a substance from one state to another
      • common states of matter = solid, liquid, and gas
        • solid - has a definite volume and definite shape
        • liquid - has a definite volume but an indefinite shape
          • a liquid takes the shape of its container
        • gas - has neither definite volume nor definite shape
        • plasma - a high-temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms
      • chemical properties and chemical changes
        • chemical property - relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances
          • example: the ability of charcoal to burn in the air
        • chemical change/chemical reaction - a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
        • reactants - the substances that react in a chemical change
        • products - the substances that are formed by the chemical change
    • Classification of Matter
      • mixture - a blend of two or more kinds of matter of which retains its own identity and properties
        • the components of a mixture are simply mixed together physically and can usually be separated
      • homogeneous mixtures - mixtures that are uniform in composition
        • homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions
        • example: salt-water solution
      • heterogeneous mixtures - mixtures that are not uniform throughout
        • example: a mixture of clay and water
      • pure substance - has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in the following ways:
        • every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties
        • every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same composition
      • pure substances are either compounds or elements
    • Types of Elements
      • metal - an element that is a good electrical conductor and a good heat conductor
        • at room temperature, most metals are solids
        • malleability - can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets
        • ductile - can be drawn into a fine wire
      • nonmetal - an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
        • conductivity
      • metalloid - an element that has some characteristics of metals
        • metalloids are found between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table (RN)

  • Measurements
    • Scientific Method - a logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
      • system - a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
      • hypothesis - testable statement
      • controls - the experimental conditions that remain constant
      • variable - any condition that changes
      • theory - a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
    • Units of Measurement
      • quantity - something that has magnitude, size, or amount
      • SI - the measurement system that scientists all over the world agree on
      • weight - a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
      • derived units - combinations of SI units
      • volume - the amount of space occupied by an object
      • density - the ratio of mass to volume, or mass divided by volume (D=m/V)
      • conversion factor - a ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
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    • Using Scientific Measurement
      • accuracy - the closeness of measurement to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
      • precision - the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
      • percentage error - calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and the multiplying by 100.
      • significant fires in a measurement consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated.
      • scientific notation - when numbers are written in the form M x 10^n, where the factor M is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number.
      • two quantities are directly proportional to each other if dividing one by the other gives a constant value
      • two quantities are inversely proportional to each other if their product is constant (RN)